Foot and mouth disease in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic: II. Seroprevalence estimates, using structured surveillance and surveys of abattoirs
An examination of the seroprevalence of foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus was conducted in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) from 1996 to 2005, using structured surveillance and abattoir-based studies. Under structured surveillance, seropositivity ranged from 65.7% (Vientiane Capital, 1996) to 3% (Houaphan, 2005) for cattle and buffalo; and from 2.8% (Vientiane Capital, 1998) to 0% in separate studies of pigs. In each study, species composition was significantly associated with seroprevalence rates. For abattoir surveys, the majority of samples (60.5%) came from Vientiane Capital (33.0%), Savannakhet (14.0%) and Champasak (13.5%) provinces. The overall proportion of animals testing positive for the presence of antibodies against the FMD virus was 18.7% (ranging from 50.8% in Vientiane Province to 1% in Phongsali). Generally, antibodies against serotype O were the most prevalent. Cattle and buffalo that tested as seropositive were significantly older than the seronegative animals (p < 0.00005). The overall proportional seropositivity was significantly different for different species, as was the case with the antibodies against serotypes O, A and Asia 1. Some 22% of cattle, 55% of buffalo and 23% of pigs demonstrated seropositivity but this varied significantly between provinces.