Summary (continued)
PHSV has been isolated from horses with neurological disease both in Australia and in Peru (where it is now endemic). Serological and molecular diagnostic assays have been developed for these viruses to assist in their identification and diagnosis. Other orbiviruses, such as Palyam virus and Equine encephalosis virus, have more recently been identified outside their geographical boundaries and may represent a threat to domesticated livestock and horses, respectively. The article also reviews four zoonotic orbivirus species (Corriparta virus, Changuinola virus, Kemerovo virus and Orungo virus) which have been identified in livestock and/or wildlife.