The epidemiology of anthrax involves an environmental component, as well as livestock, wildlife and human components. This makes anthrax an ideal example for discussion in the One Health context. Many outbreaks of anthrax in wildlife are undetected or unreported, owing to surveillance inadequacies and difficulties. Human disease is generally acquired accidentally during outbreaks of anthrax in domestic livestock and wildlife. The exception is deliberate targeting of humans with anthrax in the course of biowarfare or bioterrorism.