Permanent regional networks and ad hoc networks created to tackle specific issues (both of which require donor investment) are also facilitating improved disease surveillance and collaborative approaches to synchronised interventions across country borders. These networks necessarily involve the key ministries for One Health, those of health, agriculture/livestock, and natural resources/environment. Ministries play a critical role in the formulation and implementation of policies for the promotion of health and disease control. They contribute to all stages of the One Heath process, as do universities, which engage by generating knowledge and capacity through teaching, research and extension services. Similarly, non-governmental organisations have a key role in stewardship; resource mobilisation; generation of knowledge; capacity development; intervention design; and implementation. Finally, communities, including rural and indigenous peoples, particularly those that are in close proximity to natural areas, are at the heart of the One Health concept.