Summary
This paper presents data on the prevalence, biology and control of warble fly infestation (WFI) in cattle and goats in Pakistan. A questionnaire for obtaining information on biology and prevalence was circulated amongst field veterinary staff and livestock farmers in all five provinces (Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [KPK] and Gilgit-Baltistan) and in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of the country. A total of 1,019 questionnaires were received (Punjab = 296, Sindh = 246, KPK = 318, Balochistan = 151, Gilgit-Baltistan = 8). Warble fly infestation was reported from each province and from the federally administered tribal areas, particularly from hilly, semi-hilly and sandy desert areas (the Cholistan desert, which adjoins the Rehim Yar Khan, Bahawalpur and Bahawalnagar districts, and the Nara area of Sanghar district). Warbles (nodules) started appearing on the backs of the infested animals from September through December and disappeared from October through March. The prevalence of WFI varied from 5% to 75%. It was highest in hilly areas and gradually decreased towards the plains. A map was developed of warble fly infested areas. Four field trials were conducted to study the efficacy of different drugs indicated for the control of warble fly infestation. A total of 2,094 cattle and 3,876 goats were given five different injectables (avermectins); namely, Ivomec, Endectin, Euvectin, Dectomax and Promectin (ivermectin) during the first three weeks of September. A control group was given normal saline. All the medicines were found to be effective in controlling infestation.
 
Keywords
Avermectin – Biology – Cattle – Control – Goat – Pakistan – Prevalence – Warble fly.