Summary
The foot and mouth disease (FMD) status of a country or region has a profound bearing on access to export markets for live animals and animal products. In countries without FMD-free status, and in accordance with the international standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), restrictions may be applied to trade in both vaccinated and unvaccinated animals and their products. Available information suggests that, provided there is compliance with essential criteria concerning vaccines, vaccination and other zoosanitary measures (especially quarantine and ante- and post-mortem inspection), the risk of spreading FMD through the importation of vaccinated cattle, sheep and pigs is extremely small. The risk from products derived from vaccinated animals is even smaller, provided that appropriate risk mitigation measures are applied. Knowledge of the zoosanitary status of the exporting country is critical for risk assessment, but can be difficult to verify. Although empirical evidence and practical experience strongly indicate low risk, it is not possible to assert that the risk is zero for vaccinated animals or their products. In the absence of key factual data, risk analysis is only practicable on a qualitative or semi-quantitative basis. However, a very low level of risk is both unavoidable and acceptable if such trade is to be conducted.
 
Keywords
Foot and mouth disease – Foot and mouth disease vaccination – Risk analysis – Risk assessment – Risk mitigation – Trade in animal products – Trade in animals.