Brucellosis was studied in 2,225 camels, 20 camel nomads and 33 abattoir workers in certain nomadic localities in Sudan, using serum and milk samples. Lymph nodes, testicular tissues and udder tissues from positive camels and hygroma aspirates from three affected cows were used for isolation of Brucella. Serum samples were examined by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), modified RBPT (mRBPT), serum agglutination test (SAT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA), and milk by the milk ring test. Overall seroprevalence in camels (milk and serum samples) was 37.5%. The seroprevalence in males was 28.2% and in females 40.1%. Twelve (60%) of the 20 nomads and three (9%) of the 33 abattoir workers had positive antibody titres. Brucella abortus biovar 6 was isolated from two camels and three cows. Two isolates, one from each species, were atypical. The bacteriological findings suggested that camels were infected from cattle, the primary hosts of B. abortus. The mRBPT was suitable for screening camel sera for brucellosis, but the cELISA detected 2.1% more positives. The SAT antibody concentrations ranged between <13 and 3,282 IU/ml.