An outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was recorded in Kalubia province, Egypt in 2006, affecting a large population of migratory goats and sheep over a huge geographical area. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory investigations were performed. Diseased animals showed pyrexia, erosive stomatitis, enteritis and bronchopneumonia. Clinical manifestations were more severe in goats. The overall morbidity, cumulative mortality and case fatality rates were 26.1%, 10.5% and 40.2%, respectively, and were significantly higher in young animals. Post-mortem examination showed emaciation, congested mucous membranes, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, haemorrhagic necrosis of the abomasal and intestinal mucosa, pleurisy and lung consolidation. Forty oculonasal swabs and 243 serum samples from diseased animals were tested for PPR antigen and antibodies using immunocapture and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), respectively. PPR antigen was detected in 30/40 (75%) of the swabs. PPR virus was identified in inoculated Vero cells using immunocapture ELISA and fluorescent antibody technique (FAT); 33/40 (82.5%) and 36/40 (90%) samples were positive, respectively. Of 243 sera, 154 (63.4%) contained PPR antibodies. Circulation of PPR among the migratory sheep and goat flocks was demonstrated. Strict serosurveillance and monitoring of PPR with vaccination of migratory flocks at borders is required for effective control of the disease.