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|Author(s) :||E.P. Hoberg|
The biosphere in evolutionary and ecological time has been structured by episodes of geographic and host colonisation that have determined distributions of complex assemblages of microparasites and macroparasites, including helminths circulating among vertebrates. Biological invasion is an intricate phenomenon often involving ‘extra-range dispersal’ and establishment of exotic (non-indigenous) species and populations substantially beyond their native range. Invasion may also involve the expansion or shifting of host and geographic distributions of an endemic (indigenous) species or fauna under changing environmental conditions. Invasions result in faunal interchange occurring under influences from both natural and anthropogenic forces where expansion on spatial/temporal continua bridges continents, regions and landscapes. Drivers for invasion are idiosyncratic, multifactorial, interactive, and opportunistic, with a powerful role for historical contingency. The life history patterns of helminths interact with invasion pathways to determine the potential for introduction.
Anthropogenic event – Biodiversity – Helminth – Invasive species – Propagule – Vertebrate parasite.