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Author(s) : B. Vallat

Summary :

Before considering the evolution of the principal vector-borne diseases, we should remember certain key definitions. Here, the terms ‘vector’, ‘(re)emerging disease’ and, finally, ‘zoonosis’ are defined in accordance with the definitions of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) (the Terrestrial Code). According to the Terrestrial Code, the word ‘vector’ refers to any living vector (e.g. an insect or a tick) which carries an infectious agent from an infected individual to a susceptible individual, the food they consume or their immediate environment. This infectious agent may or may not spend part of its development cycle in the vector. If it does, this is known as biological transmission; if it does not, mechanical transmission. These two different modes of transmission have an impact upon the epidemiology of the infection or infestation.

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