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Product title :

A brief history of vaccines and vaccination

Author(s) : M. Lombard, P.-P. Pastoret & A.-M. Moulin

Summary :

Human vaccinology, with its primary focus on the individual, seems far removed from veterinary medicine, with its concern for the health of the herd. Yet several episodes in the past (smallpox, fowl cholera, anthrax, swine erysipelas, rabies, tuberculosis, etc.) serve to illustrate the proximity between research on veterinary and human vaccines. In some cases the human vaccine was developed first, while in other cases it was the animal vaccine. The history of vaccinology clearly demonstrates the importance of these ‘two medicines’ working together. Foot and mouth disease (FMD) vaccines were among the first vaccines to be developed, beginning at the end of the 19th Century. Thanks to the discoveries of several researchers, including European researchers such as Vallée (French), Waldmann (German), Frenkel (Dutch) and Capstick (British), FMD vaccines began to be produced on an industrial scale from 1950 onwards, making possible vaccination of millions of animals in Europe and beyond. Vaccination strategies against FMD have always been dependent on the properties of the vaccines being used. At the beginning of the 21st Century FMD vaccines are designed in such a way that serological tests can differentiate infected from vaccinated animals, which has affected OIE regulations on international trade in animals and animal products. The history of vaccination against rinderpest, bovine contagious pleuropneumonia, and Marek’s disease will also be dealt with.

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