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Product title :

Equine infectious anaemia and mechanical transmission: man and the wee beasties

Author(s) : C.J. Issel & L.D. Foil

Summary :

There is no credible evidence that the lentivirus that causes equine infectious anaemia (EIA) replicates in invertebrates. The virus persistently infects its equid hosts and is often present in blood in significant quantities. Blood-feeding arthropods thus have the potential to transfer the virus between hosts, especially if their feeding on the first host is interrupted and immediately continued on a second host. The general details and dynamics of mechanical transmission are included in this paper, as this agent presents an excellent model. Mechanical transmission can be effectively controlled if the dynamics and interactions of the host, virus and vector populations are understood. Efficient transmission is proportional to the amount of agent found in the source material, the environmental survival of the agent, the number of vector feedings, the number of interrupted feedings, vector refeeding, the proximity of infected and naive hosts, host population density, and the length of time during which vectors and hosts are in contact. Establishing firm quantitative risk estimates for EIA is impossible, mainly because the virus content in blood can change exponentially from day to day.

Keywords
Deer fly – Equid – Equine infectious anaemia – Horse – Horse fly – Lentivirus – Mechanical transmission – Tabanid – Vector behaviour.

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