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Product title :

Akabane virus infection

Author(s) : P.D. Kirkland

Summary :

Akabane virus is a Culicoides-borne orthobunyavirus that is teratogenic to the fetus of cattle and small ruminant species. Depending upon the stage of gestation at which infection occurs, and the length of gestation of the mammalian host, a range of congenital defects may be observed. The developing central nervous system is usually the most severely affected, with hydranencephaly and arthrogryposis most frequently observed. Less commonly, some strains of Akabane virus can cause encephalitis in the neonate or, rarely, adult cattle. Akabane viruses are known to be widespread in temperate and tropical regions of Australia, Southeast Asia, the Middle East and some African countries. Disease is infrequently observed in regions where this virus is endemic and the presence of the virus remains unrecognised in the absence of serological surveillance. In some Asian countries, vaccines are used to minimise the occurrence of disease.

Keywords
Akabane virus – Arthrogryposis – Congenital defect – Culicoides – Hydranencephaly – Orthobunyavirus.

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