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Product title :

Recent developments in livestock and wildlife brucellosis vaccination

Author(s) : S.C. Olsen

Summary :

Live attenuated brucellosis vaccines have been available for protecting domestic livestock against Brucella melitensis and B. abortus for more than 60 years. Current vaccines are effective in preventing abortion and transmission of brucellosis, but poor at preventing infection or seroconversion. In addition, they can induce abortions in pregnant animals and are infectious to humans. It can be argued that current vaccines were developed empirically in that the immunological mechanism(s) of action were not determined. Current knowledge suggests that both the innate and adaptive immune responses contribute to immunity against intracellular pathogens and that binding of pathogen structures onto pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is crucial to the development of adaptive immunity. The phagosome appears to be vital for the presentation of antigens to T-cell subtypes that provide protective immunity to intracellular pathogens. The observation that killed bacteria or subunit vaccines do not appear to fully stimulate PRRs, or mimic Brucella trafficking through phagosomes, may explain their inability to induce immunity that equals the protection provided by live attenuated vaccines.
 
Keywords
Adaptive immunity – Brucellosis – DNA vaccine – Innate immunity – Nanoparticle – Vaccine.

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